Beer glossary

Top fermentation: one of the beer making stages, rapid fermentation of the wort at a temperature of 12-25°C, with the addition of top yeast which rises up and is removed at the end of fermentation.

Bottom fermentation:  one of the beer making stages, rapid fermentation of the wort at a temperature of 5-10°C, with the addition of bottom yeast which settles to the bottom. Fermentation is carried out in two stages: primary fermentation and post-fermentation. 

Hydrocyclone machine (whirlpool): cylindrical vessel used in brewing for clarifying hot wort..

Yeast: single-celled microorganisms that are used for fermentation in brewing.

Mash: a water-mixed mass of crushed malted feedstock.

Kegs: metal vessels for storing and carrying beer.

Strong beer: dense beer with alcohol content up to 7.5%.

Lager beer: bottom beer, i.e. fermented at low temperatures using bottom fermentation.

Unmalted grains: feedstock cheaper than malt, most often rice, corn, wheat or barley added at the mashing stage instead of malt portion.

Wort hopping: adding hops to wort during boiling in order to dissolve valuable components of hops in wort, including bitter substances.

Pasteurization: a process named after the French microbiologist Louis Pasteur, which is heating beer to 67-72°C in order to destroy microorganisms.

Pilsner: light bitter beer after bottom fermentation.

Beer gravity: the density of beer wort, calculated as the percentage of sugar content in the liquid and shown on the labels as a percentage or Balling degree.

Porter: dark beer with a wine hint and a strong malt aroma, sweet and bitter at a time, resulting from top fermentation.

PET: transparent bottles made of granulated polyethylene terephthalate.

Light beer: a low-alcohol drink made from malt wort and brewer's yeast.

Malt: a product derived from malting barley grain sprouts.

Black malt: light malt roasted at a temperature of 175-200°C, has a dark color and serves for richer colour of beer.

Caramel malt: freshly sprouted saccharified and roasted malt, has a sweet taste, serves for more persistent foam and enhanced taste.

Dark malt: a type of malt for beer making and giving it a golden hue.

Malting: the process of sprouting grains, as well as preparing the grain for later use in brewing.

Wort: a solution of malt extractives that goes for fermentation.

Dark beer: beer made from roasted dark malt, with a distinctive dark color and malt hint.

Hops: a plant whose cones are used in brewing to add delectable bitterness and hop aroma to the beer.

Wort filtration: separation of grain product residues from the wort by using mash filters and filtration units.

Cylindroconical vessels (primary fermentation and post-fermentation units): a wort fermentation and maturation vessel.

Ale: a beer type made by top fermentation at a temperature of 15-24 °C.